Here are a few good resources for helping to identify the trees and plant life in your own surroundings. For the most part there are two different types of trees.
Conifers: Cone bearing trees typically referred to as evergreen trees. However there are a few exceptions.
Deciduous: Broad leaf trees or trees that shed their leafs annually pretty much make up everything that is not considered a conifer. Again with a few exceptions. These leaves are then broken down into Simple or Compound leaf structures meaning is there a single lobe or more than one lobe to each leaf.